This information is for reference only – some local tribes and areas or time may have altered this research. It should be fairly accurate though as most of it comes from Jesuit missionaries records from 1700 – 1800’s and from a book from The Boy Scouts of America Service Library called “Totem Poles” by Robert W. De Groat printed in 1930 and sold for 20 cents. Number 3196

Thousands of years ago when man was in his early savage state, Totemism had its origin. In his conflict with the rough forces of nature man learned the habits, the virtues, and the strong features of certain animals. He respected them and prided himself on the stories he could tell of his adventures among the beasts. From one outstanding adventure he would acquire his tribal name. The name would not be the same as the animal but it would stand for the virtues which that particular animal possessed. For instance a man might be called “Huya” which stood for “fighting Eagle.” When his people called him “Huya” they not only used it for convenience, but they thought immediately of the deeds behind the name.

Many persons still retain common family names such as Fox, Green, Stone, etc., which were originally totems. In the early days a man did not sign his name. He would draw the picture of the animal in what is known as “pictograph” form. Some of these ancient pictographs are on exhibition in some of our larger museums. Primitive man was very proud of his totem, since in those early days it stood for all that a family name and its traditions stand for nowadays. It was his name, his ancestors name, something held in reverence.

The Indian was wise in many ways. He carved his family history on a large pole and erected it where everyone could see it. To a certain extent it helped him live a finer life, as his deeds were deeply incised in monumental form, impossible to change at a moments notice. The pole generally started with the oldest history at the bottom, and read upward. It was topped with the family totem or crest, giving a royal appearance and strong silhouette. Among certain tribes of the Northwest, two watchmen were used as a crowning feature.

Early totems were carved with stone tools. As metals parts of boats washed ashore, and European and Asian settlers arrived, the carvers began to use metal tools.

Types of Totem Poles

Burial Poles – Carry a story about the deceased.
Crest Poles – Give the ancestry of particular family.
Heraldic Poles – These totems stand in the front area of the house displaying the family history.
History Poles – Record the history of a clan.
House Frontal Poles – Like portals, the cedar posts stand by the entrance of the house.
Indoor House Posts – These poles support the roof and also carry many clan emblems.
Legend Poles – illustrate folklore or real life experiences.
Memorial Poles – commemorate a particular individual.
Pirate Poles – remembering pirates of the past, mostly found in fantasy games.
Potlatch poles – These totems are carved exclusively by the Haida Natives to commemorate festivals and events.
Ridicule poles – These totem poles were sometimes erected to shame debtors.

Prominent Features of Totems

Raven – beak sharp protruding
Wolf – long sharp muzzle and elevated snout
Bear – usually realistically featured large nostrils, paws, and fangs
Bear – usually realistically featured large nostrils, paws, and fangs
Mountain Goat – sharp horns, cleft hoof as a foot with two toes
Killer Whale – two prominent dorsal fins, large head, mouth turned up at corners, two spines above eyes
Dogfish Shark – gills slits as crescents, crescent shaped mouth, depressed at corners and filled with saw-like teeth
Halibut – continuous fin, both eyes on one side
Octopus – bird like head, hooked bill, suction plates and tentacles
Insect – carved much like birds difficult to recognize
Supernatural Symbols – carved as adaptations of local species, such as – sea grizzly carved as bears with fins
Toads – carved realistically and used as space fillers, inclusion on pole believed to prevent pole from rotting
Sea Animals – round eyes while all other animal eyes are carved as two curves enclosing a circle
Men and Women – represented realistically, women are distinguished by a labret in their lower lip
Pirate MMO – represented as hunters of treasure for thousands of years in real-life and fantasy

Meaning of Totem Pole Colors

“These colors were fairly consistent through United States although they may have varied from tribe to tribe in shades” For paint the Indians originally used pigments from clay and roots. The colors were very bright and became subdued after the pole had weathered several winters. The symbolism of the colors changed a little in different parts of United States.

White

This color is used, along with other light colors, as a background and predominating shade. As a rule it symbolized the skies and the spacious heavens. It also stood for purity, peace and death.

Red

Generally this color stands for blood, war or valor. Sometimes it is used as appears in nature, such as the crest of a red-headed woodpecker, the scarlet tanager or frequently the tongue of an animal.

Blue

This color was most commonly used as the symbol for the rivers, water and lakes, also the skies. Certain tribes even used it for mountains in the distance. It stands for sincerity and happiness. Berries formed a large portion of the natural color. Western clay and pigments of the canyons also lent varying hues to this effective color.

Yellow

The natural abundant materials made this color a very popular and predominating one. Clays, roots and tannic barks furnished the natives with dyes. Yellow reflects the symbol of the sun, light and happiness. Yellow dye is readily made from tree moss.

Green

It may easily be realized that this color represents the earth, the hills, the trees, and mountains, so common in all Indian legends. This color may be obtained by mixing two primary colors, yellow and blue, or it may be made from simple acid action on copper. In certain sections of the West, Northwest. and Upper Midwest copper was rather abundant. Other parts of the country used the grasses.

Purple

Huckleberries give a very good substance for dyeing and the Indians used this commonly. Purple is an excellent color for recessed portions of the carving and for symbols of a reverent nature. It stood for mountains in the distant and general conventionalized signs.

Black

Mud from sulphur springs and other earth deposits made this color available to the Indian. As a rule it stood for power.

The West Coast America’s Tribe’s

Haida – a little paint
Bella Coola – highly painted in bright colors
Tsimshian – tall poles
Kwakiutl – often thunderbird at top, highly painted
Tlingit – (Alaska) – red and pastel colors
Salish – smaller figures and poles
Nootka – tall and small poles

Color is also employed to designate directions. Below is an explanation of these colors used by most Tribes in USA

Directional Colors – Red is South, blue-green is West, yellow indicates North, and white is East.

Numbers are also used
One – South, Two – West, Three – North, Four – East, Five Upper World or Sun, Six Mother Earth, Seven Sacred Fire in the center of the Universal Circle. The connection to The Universal Spirit, The Great One, Great Spirit,

Prominent Features of Totem Figures

Owl – small triangular peak – big eyes
Thunderbird – very powerful eagle – magical – usually spread wings
Eagle and Raven – beaks stick out
Killer Whale – Orca – long flat sides, fish tale, can be black and white
Salmon or Flounder – flat sides, round eyes
Grizzly Bear – bear paws, snout, ears
Frog – usually shown from above
Mosquito or Hummingbird – long, thin beak
Mountain Goat – horns and hoofed feet
Human – face, hands, feet of a person
Baby – usually under an adult
Moon – big circle
Sun – big circle with rays

Symbols Represented the Following

These Symbols are examples from Indian tribes around United States. They are fairly universal although some Tribes may not use some of these symbols and others may have other meanings for them on a local level.

Beaver

Creative, Artistic and Determined

Bear
Strength, Learned Humility, Motherhood, Teaching

Bumblebee

Honesty, Pure Thinking – Willingness and Drive

Buffalo

It represents the Great Spirit manifested

Butterfly

Transformation and the ability to accept change

Copper

Wealth and Prestige

Cougar

Power, leadership,encourages responsibility for life

Cow

Motherhood and nourishment, fertility

Crocodile

Emotional nature

Coyote

Helps you recognize your own mistakes

Crow

Find balance, living in present, release past beliefs

Deer

Gentleness, kindness and compassion

Dolphin

breath, communication, interpreting your dreams

Dogfish

Persistence and Strength A Born Leader

Dove
Love, Gentleness and Kindness

Dragon Fly
Ever-changing Life

Eagle
Great Strength, courage Leadership and Prestige

Eagle Feather
Good Luck to Both Giver and Receiver

Frog
Spring & New Life – Communicator, Stability

Grizzly Bear
Strength and Ferocity

Halibut
Life protector, Strength and Stability

Hawk
Strength Far Sighted

Heron
Patience, Graceful and Easy Going

Horse
communicate with other realms, message carrier.

Human faces
People

Hummingbird
Love, Beauty, Intelligence, Spirit Messenger

Killer Whale
Seas and the Underworld, Traveler & Guardian

Symbol of Good

Kingfisher
Luck, Patience, Speed and Agility

Lizard
your awareness, your subconscious hopes and fears

Loon
Peace, Tranquility – Generous Giving Nature

Moon
Protector and Guardian of the Earth by Night

Height Mouse
To notice the little things in life

Mountain Goat
Nobility

Otter
Trusting, Inquisitive and Bright – Loyal Friendship

Owl
Wisdom, ability to see things, normally hidden from view

Raven
Creation & Knowledge – Bringer of the Light

Salmon
Dependability and Renewal – A Provider

Seal
Bright, Inquisitive, Organized

Snake
Helps get rid of useless problems and items like it sheds it skin

Spider
Creativity, weaving of fate

Squirrel
Develops the ability to plan ahead and to anticipate your future needs

Swan
Gives ability to handle change and transformation with grace and dignity

Sun
Healing Energy, Guardian of the Earth by Day

Thunderbird
Powerful & Mystical – A Leader

Turtle
Gives ability to keep your feet on the ground and pay attention to earthly things.

Weasel
Encourages you to develop your sense of inner hearing and to pay attention to your inner voice.

Whale
gives you the ability to know the wisdom of the ages – from the time before time

Wolf
Intelligence & Leadership – Strong Sense of Family

Authentic Totems of American Indian Tribes

Iroquois

Mohawks – Bear, wolf, and turtle.
Oneidas – Bear, wolf, turtle.
Onondagas – Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, eel, snipe.
Cayugas – Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, eel, snipe, hawk.
Senecas – Bear, wolf, turtle, deer, beaver, heron, snipe, hawk.
Tuscaroras – Bear, gray wolf, yellow wolf, great turtle, little turtle, beaver, eel, snipe.
Hurons or Wyandots – Big turtle, little turtle, mud turtle, wolf, bear, beaver, deer, porcupine, striped turtle, prairie turtle, snake, hawk.

Algonkin Tribes on the Atlantic

Delaware’s or Lenapes – Wolf, bear, dog, opossum, turtle, little turtle, mud turtle, great turtle, yellow eel, turkey, crane, chicken.

Mohicans – Wolf, turtle, turkey, bear, dog, opossum, yellow eel, crane, chicken

Abenakis (Maine) – Wolf, wild cat (black), bear, snake, spotted animal, beaver, caribou, sturgeon, muskrat, pigeon, hawk, squirrel, spotted frog, crane, porcupine.

Mississippi Algonkin Tribes

Pueblo Tribes

Miami’s – Wolf, loon, eagle, buzzard, panther, turkey, raccoon, snow, sun, water.

Sauks and Foxes – Wolf, bear, deer, elk, hawk, eagle, fish, buffalo, thunder, pine, fox, sea, sturgeon, big tree.

Shawnees – Wolf, loon, bear, buzzard, panther, owl, turkey, deer, raccoon, turtle, snake, horse, rabbit.

Menomonis – Bear, porcupine, turtle, crane, wolf, otter, sturgeon, sunfish, big thunder, golden eagle, fork-tail hawk, bald eagle, turkey-buzzard, winter hawk, red tail hawk, crow, raven, beaver, elk, pine squirrel, wolf, dog, deer, bald eagle, fish hawk, great heron, coot, marten, fisher.

Ojibways – Crane, catfish, loon, bear, marten, reindeer, wolf, merman, pike, lynx, eagle, rattlesnake, moose, black duck or cormorant, goose, sucker, sturgeon, white fish, beaver, gull, hawk, mud turtle, snapping turtle, little turtle, snipe, duck, snake, muskrat, heron, hull-head or bull-pout, sparrow, hawk, water snake, forked tree, wildcat, otter, buffalo, birch-bark, white oak tree, grizzly bear, reindeer, pike.

Seminoles – Wind, tiger or panther, otter, bird, deer, wolf, snake, alligator.

Chickasaw – Wildcat, bird, panther, fish, deer, raccoon, squirrel, alligator, wolf, blackbird.

Cherokees – Wolf, holly, acorn, deer, bird, long prairie.

Hopi – Horn-flute, mountain sheep, deer, antelope, elk, seed grass, ant, corn, rain cloud, rainbow, lightning, agaves, rabbit-brush, duck, frog, tadpole, snake, puma, dove, cactus, marmot, skunk, raccoon, squash, crane, pigeon hawk, thistle, eagle, hawk, turkey, sun, star, chicken hawk, willow, parrot, cottonwood, macaw, corn, badger, butterfly, coyote, skeleton,hemlock, buck-grass, squash, yellow fox, gray fox, juniper, striped squirrel, lizard, spider, fir, oak, magpie, field mouse, porcupine, turkey buzzard.

Zuni – Crane or pelican, evergreen oak, coyote, badger, antelope, sun, eagle, parrot-macaw, cotton-tail rabbit, tortoise, rouse, bear, maize plant, deer, turkey, toad or frog, rattle-snake, sunflower.

Scattered Tribes of the Pueblos – Calabash, mountain lion, turquoise, granite, arrow, humming bird, blue bird, timber, gopher, pine, boulder goose.

Mahaves – Moon, caterpillar, coyote, rain cloud, sun, beaver, mesquite.

Northwest Indians

Tlingit – Raven, frog, goose, sea lion, owl, salmon, beaver, codfish, skate, wolf, eagle, bear, killer-whale, shark, auk, gull, sparrow-hawk, thunder-bird.

Haidas – Raven clan, eagle, killer-whale, black bear, loon, woodpecker, thunder-bird, hawk, wolf, dogfish, devilfish, owl, land otter, grizzly bear, sea lion, mountain goat, rainbow.

Eagle Clan – beaver, sculpin, frog, raven, dogfish, halibut, land otter, starfish, hummingbird, skate.

Tsimshian – Raven, codfish, starfish, eagle, halibut, beaver, whale, wolf, crane, grizzly bear, bear, killer whale, dolphin, sun, moon, grouse.

Omahas – Male elk and deer, red maize, bear, turtle or tortoise, bird, white crane, verdigris, or green clay, deer head, buffalo head, white clay, buffalo tail, reptiles, thunder, black shoulder, wolf.

Poncas – Thunder, fire, wind-makers, wildcat, bald elk, earth, medicine, dark buffalo, osage.

Iowa’s – Black bear, wolf, white wolf, black wolf, gray wolf, coyote, eagle, thunder-being, golden eagle, gray eagle, spotted eagle, bald eagle, elk, beaver, pigeon, raccoon, grouse, buffalo, rattlesnake, owl.

Kansas or Kaw – Deer, black eagle, prairie wolf, tent, bear, duck, turtle, thunder, buffalo, elk, earth, white eagle, raccoon, osage, black bear, ghost, gray hawk.

Osages – Sun, comet, buffalo bull, black bear, elk, swan, bald eagle, turtle, fish, pond-lily.

Winnebagoes – Wolf, elk, bear, deer, buffalo, snake, eagle, thunder.

Mandans – Wolf, bear, prairie chicken, good knife, eagle, flathead, high village.

Crows – Prairie dog, skunk, lost lodges, bear’s paw, fish catchers, raven, antelope.

Creek Indians – Wolf, bear, skunk, alligator, panther, mole, fish, hickory nut, beaver, snake, bear, deer, wind, fox, maize, salt, otter, bird, toad, raccoon, wildcat, buffalo.